For a UPSC CSE aspirant, the optional subject is also an important subject. In the UPSC mains exam, optional marks have two papers, Paper 1 and Paper 2. Each paper is of 250 marks which makes a total of 500 marks. The UPSC optional subject list contains 48 subjects in total, one of which is Civil Engineering.
- The Civil Engineering syllabus mainly focuses on the candidates’ understanding of the basic concepts and application of knowledge to problems of sustainable development.
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SYLLABUS FOR PAPER 1
(A) ENGINEERING MECHANICS, STRENGTH OF MATERIALS, AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS.
- ENGINEERING MECHANICS:
- Units and Dimensions, Vectors, SI Units, Concept of Force, the concept of a particle, and rigid body.
- Concurrent, Non-Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force, and Varignon’s theorem, conditions of equilibrium, free body diagram, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system.
- First and Second Moment of area, Mass moment of Inertia. Static Friction, bearings, and inclined plane.
- Kinematics and Kinetics:
- Kinematics in Cartesian as well as Polar Coordinates
- The motion under uniform and nonuniform acceleration, motion under gravity.
- Kinetics of particle:
- Momentum and Energy principles
- The collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies
- D’Alembert’s Principle
- (SHM) Simple harmonic motion
- STRENGTH OF MATERIALS:
- Simple Stress and Strain
- Elastic constants
- Axially loaded compression members
- Shear force and bending moment, the theory of simple bending.
- Leaf Spring
- Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength.
- Strain Energy in direct stress, bending & shear.
- Deflection of beams:
- Macaulay’s method
- Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate beam method, the unit load method
- Torsion of Shafts, Transmission of power, Elastic stability of columns, Euler’s Rankine’s, and Secant formulae.
- Close coiled helical springs
- Principal Stresses and Strains in two dimensions, Mohr’s Circle, Theories of Elastic Failure.
- Stresses due to internal and external pressure- Lame’s equations.
- STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS:
- Castiglianio’s theorems I and II, unit load method of consistent deformation.
- Slope deflection, moment distribution, Rolling loads, and Influences lines:
- Influences lines for Shear Force.
- Bending moment at a section of beam.
- Criteria for maximum shear force as well as bending Moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses.
- Arches: Two hinged, three-hinged, and fixed arches, rib shortening, and temperature effects.
- Matrix methods of analysis:
- Displacement, and force method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
- Plastic Analysis of frames and beams:
- Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis.
- Mechanism method, and Statical method.
- Unsymmetrical bending:
- Moment of inertia.
- Product of inertia.
- Calculation of bending stresses.
- The position of Neutral Axis and Principle axes
(B) DESIGN OF STRUCTURES: STEEL, CONCRETE, AND MASONRY STRUCTURES
- STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN:
- Safety factors and, load factors of structural steel.
- Riveted, bolted, and welded joints and connections.
- Design of tension and compression member, beams of the built-up section, riveted and welded plate girders, gantry girders, stanchions with battens, slab, and lacings.
- Design of highway and railway bridges
- DESIGN OF CONCRETE AND MASONRY STRUCTURES:
- Concept of mix design
- Reinforces Concrete:
- Working Stress and Limit State method of design along with recommendations of I.S. codes
- Design of one way and two-way slabs, stair-case slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections.
- Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity
- Isolated, and combined footings
- Cantilever and counterfort type retaining walls.
- Water tanks:
- Design requirements for rectangular and circular tanks resting on the ground.
- Prestressed concrete:
- Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, analysis, and design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress.
- Design of masonry retaining walls.
- Design of brick masonry w.rt. I.S. Codes.
(C) FLUID MECHANICS, OPEN CHANNEL FLOW, AND HYDRAULIC MACHINES
- Fluid Mechanics:
- Fluid properties and their role in a fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on curved and plane surfaces.
- Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow:
- Velocity and accelerations, equation of continuity, streamlines, irrotational and rotational flow
- Velocity potential and stream functions
- Control volume equation, continuity, energy, and momentum equations.
- Navier-Strokes equation, Euler’s equation of motion, application to fluid flow problems, pipe flow, plane, curved, stationary and moving vanes, sluice gates, weirs.
- Dimensional Analysis and Similitude:
- Buckingham’s Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters, model laws, similitude theory, distorted and undistorted models.
- Laminar Flow: Laminar flow between stationary, parallel, and moving plates, flow through a tube.
- Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sublayer, smooth and rough boundaries, drag and lift.
- Turbulent flow through pipes:
- Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution, and variation of pipe friction factor, siphons, expansion, and contractions in pipes, pipe networks, water hammer in pipes, and surge tanks, hydraulic grade line, and total energy line.
- Open Channel Flow:
- Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum, and energy correction factors.
- Classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration of varied flow equation.
- Specific energy and specific force, critical depth, rapidly varied flow, hydraulic jump, gradually varied flow.
- HYDRAULIC MACHINES AND HYDROPOWER:
- Hydraulic turbines, types, and classification.
- Principles of hydropower development.
- Choice of turbines, performance parameters, controls, characteristics, specific speed.
(D) GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
- Soil Type and structure
- Gradation and particle size distribution – consistency limits. Water in soil – capillary and structural – effective stress and pore water pressure – permeability concept – field and laboratory determination of permeability – Seepage pressure – quicksand conditions – Shear strength determination – Mohr Coulomb concept. Compaction of soil – Laboratory and field tests. Compressibility and consolidation concept – consolidation theory – consolidation settlement analysis. Earth pressure theory and analysis for retaining walls, Application for sheet piles, and Braced excavation. Bearing capacity of soil – approaches for analysis – Field tests – settlement analysis – stability of slope of earth walk. Subsurface exploration of soils – methods Foundation – Type and selection criteria for foundation of structures – Design criteria for foundation – Analysis of the distribution of stress for footings and pile – pile group action-pile load test. Ground improvement techniques.
SYLLABUS OF PAPER 2
(A) CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY, EQUIPMENT, PLANNING, AND MANAGEMENT :
1. Construction Technology:
- Engineering Materials: Physical properties of stones, tiles, bricks, cement, lime, and surkhi mortars, Cement concrete, and lime concrete (i.e. construction materials).
- Use of Ferro-cement, flooring tiles, fiber-reinforced, and polymer concrete, high strength concrete, and lightweight concrete.
- Properties, uses, defects, seasoning, and preservation of timber.
- Plastics, rubber, and damp-proofing materials, termite proofing.
- Materials selection and usage for low-cost housing.
- Building components and their functions.
- Construction details, Masonry principles, strength characteristics of brick, stone, blocks.
- Study of common repairs in buildings.
- Types of pointing, plastering, flooring, roofing with construction features.
- Basic principles of detailed and approximate estimating
- Principles of functional planning of building for residents and specific use – Building code provisions.
- Principles of valuation of real property.
- Specification writing and rate analysis
- Machinery for earthwork, concreting, and their specific uses
- Factors affecting the selection of equipment as well as operating cost of Equipment.
3. Construction Planning and Management:
- Activities related to Construction.
- Job layouts, schedules, bar charts, organization of contracting firms, project control, and supervision.
- Cost reduction measures.
- CPM and PERT analysis (With the use of basic principles)
- CPM and PERT: its use in Cost optimization construction monitoring, and resource allocation.
- Project profitability.
- Basic principles of Economic analysis, and methods; Boot approach to financial planning.
(B) SURVEY AND TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING:
- Common instruments, and methods for the angle, and distance measurements for CE work.
- The use of the above-mentioned instruments and methods in plane table, traverse survey, triangulation survey, leveling work, contouring, topographical map, corrections, and adjustments.
- Surveying instruments for the above.
- Remote sensing.
- Principles of photogrammetry.
2. Railway Engineering
- Components, permanent way, types, functions.
- Construction and maintenance of permanent ways: Superelevlation, ruling gradient, creep of rail, track resistance, relaying of the track, tractive effort.
- Design, and function constituents of turn and crossings.
- Design of station and yards.
- The necessity of geometric design of the track.
3. Highway Engineering:
- Principles of highway planning, and alignments.
- Geometrical design, and classifications: Cross-section, camber, superelevation, horizontal and vertical curves.
- Classification of roads: low-cost roads
- Typical construction methods and standards of materials for stabilized soil, WBM, Bituminous works, and CC roads
- Well constructed, flexible, and rigid pavements. Design of payments and their construction, evaluation of pavement failure, and strengthening
- Typical design features for channelized, intersection, rotary, etc – signal designs – standard Traffic signs and markings
- Drainage of roads: Surface and subsurface drainage
(C) HYDROLOGY, WATER RESOURCES, AND ENGINEERING:
- Hydrological cycle
- Depression storage
- Overland flow
- Flood estimation, frequency analysis, routing through a reservoir, channel flow routing- Muskingum method.
2. Groundwater flow:
- Specific yield
- Aquifers Confined, and unconfined aquifers
- Storage coefficient of permeability
- Ground-water potential.
- Radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions, tube wells.
3. Water Resources Engineering:
- Single and multipurpose projects,
- Ground and surface water resource
- Economics of water resources projects
- Reservoirs: Storage capacity, losses, sedimentation
4. Irrigation Engineering:
- Crop: water requirements, consumptive use, duty and delta, irrigation methods, along with efficiencies.
- Canals: Distribution system, canal losses, canal capacity, alignment of main and distributary canals, most efficient section, lined canals, their design, regime theory, critical shear stress, bedload.
- Waterlogging: Control and causes, salinity.
- Canal structures: Design, head regulators, aqueducts, metering flumes, canal falls, and canal outlets.
- Diversion headwork: Principles and design of weirs of permeable and impermeable foundation, Khosla’s theory, energy dissipation.
- Storage Field: Types of dams, design, and principles of rigid gravity, stability analysis.
- Spillways: Spillway types, and energy dissipation.
- River training: Objectives, and methods only.
(D) ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
- Water Supply: Predicting demand for water, impurities of water, and their significance, physical, chemical, and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water.
- Solid waste: Collection and disposal in rural and urban contexts, management of long-term ill effects.
- Intake of water: Water treatment: principles of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation; slow-; rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odor, and salinity.
- Sewerage systems: Domestic and industrial wastes, storm sewage-separate and combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers.
- Sewage treatment: Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tanks, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of wastewater.
- Sewage characterization: BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal watercourse and on land.
(E) Environmental pollution
- Sustainable development
- Radioactive wastes and disposal
- Environmental impact assessment for thermal power plants, mines, river valley projects
- Pollution control acts.