Foundation of the UNO
After a series of conferences such as the Atlantic Charter, Yalta Conference, and Potsdam Conference finally in 1944 at Dumbarton Oaks in the USA the creation of UNO was finalized. The Charter of the United Nations(U.N) was signed by the representatives of fifty-one nations at San Francisco on 26th June 1945.
Delegates of fifty-one countries after a long discussion accepted the scheme and they published a U.N Charter. On 24th October 1945, the United Nations came into being. The UN Headquarters is located in New York, USA.
Aims of the UNO
The fundamental aims of the U.N.O as outlined in the Charter are:
- To maintain and preserve international peace and security.
- To develop friendly relations and harmony among the countries.
- To grant equal rights and self- determination to all countries.
- To solve economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems through international cooperation.
- To promote respect for human rights, dignity, and freedom.
- Not to intervene in the matters which are directly related to the domestic jurisdiction of any country.
Organization of the U.N.O
The U.N.O consists of six main bodies which are as follows:
- The General Assembly.
- The Security Council
- The Economic and Social Council
- The Trusteeship Council
- The International Court of Justice
- The Secretariat
The General Assembly
The General Assembly is a deliberative body of the United Nations Organizations. This body consists of five representatives of each member state but there is only one vote for each member state. The main functions of this organ are to consider:
- issues related to international peace and security
- to discuss important international problems.
UNO has a Secretary-General. It has 192 member countries. The official languages of UNO are English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, and Arabic.
The Security Council
The Security Council is the Cheif Executive body of the UNO. It consists of fifteen members five temporaries. The following countries Russia, China, the USA, France, and Great Britain are the permanent members of the Security Council of the UNO. The main function of the Security Council is to preserve peace and security. Each of the five permanent members has a powerful vote known as a veto. It can take diplomatic and economic steps against those nations that violate the constitution of the UNO.
This Council is composed of eighteen members at present there are twenty-seven members at present. All members of this council are elected by the General Assembly.
The fundamental of this body is:
- To create a spirit of universal respect for human rights
- To promote a higher cultural standard.
Its major function is to raise the standard of living people, to assure employment. The UNO believes that world peace could be maintained only when people enjoy a higher economic and social standard of living. The Social and Economic Council works through the cooperation of several special committees and commissions such as The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), The United Nation Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), Food and Agricultural Organization (F.A.O), International Labour Organization (I.L.O), International Bank, World Health Organization (W.H.O) etc. This organ has rendered undoubtedly great services to mankind since 1945.
The Trusteeship Council
This Council is composed of the representatives of permanent members of the Security Council, representatives of all those states which hold the administration of colonies and some other representatives elected by the General Assembly. The main function of the Trusteeship Council is to preserve the interests of the territories handed over to it and to help the General Assembly in the administration of those countries over which the U.N.O hold trusteeship.
The International Court of Justice
It is the judicial organ of the U.N.O. It has its headquarters at The Hague (Netherlands). It is composed of fifteen judges elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council for nine years. Its main function is to solve the legal dispute of the member’s states of UNO.
It consists of the working staff of the U.N.O. The Cheif of the Secretariat is called the Secretary-General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. The main function of this body is to assist all bodies of the U.N.O