UPSC BOTANY OPTIONAL SYLLABUS

For a UPSC CSE aspirant, the optional subject is also an important subject. In the UPSC mains exam, optional marks have two papers, Paper 1 and Paper 2. Each paper is of 250 marks which makes a total of 500 marks. The UPSC optional subject list contains 48 subjects in total, one of which is Botany.

  • The Botany syllabus checks the candidates’ ability to understand the subject as science and apply botanical knowledge to ecological problems.
  • The topics are mainly related to theoretical and applied Botany.
  • Candidates who already studied Botany as a part of their curriculum or have a strong background in plant biology are perfect candidates to choose this subject as an optional subject.

GET UPSC CSE SYLLABUS HERE: https://www.naukripakad.com/upsc-cse-syllabus/

KNOW ABOUT UPSC HERE: https://www.naukripakad.com/know-everything-about-upsc/

CHECK MORE OPTIONAL SUBJECT SYLLABUS AT https://www.naukripakad.com/upsc-cse-optional-subjects-and-syllabus/

SYLLABUS FOR PAPER 1

  1. MICROBIOLOGY AND PLANT PATHOLOGY:
  • Viruses, bacteria, viroids, and plasmids, mycoplasma, and fungi: Structure and reproduction.
  • Applications of microbiology in agriculture, medicine, industry, and pollution control in the air, water, and soil.
  • A general account of infection, Phytoimmunology as well as Prion and Prion hypothesis.
  • Important plant’s crop diseases caused by viruses, mycoplasma, bacteria, fungi and nematodes. Mode of infection and dissemination.
  • Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence.
  • Physiology of parasitism and control measures.
  • Fungal toxins as well as Modelling and disease forecasting.
  • Plant quarantine.
Download UPSC Mains Botany Optional Syllabus PDF - UPSC Hub

2. CRYPTOGRAMS:

  • Reproduction and structure from an evolutionary viewpoint of
    • Algae
    • Fungi
    • Bryophytes
    • Lichens
    • Pteridophytes
  • Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their economic potential and ecological importance.

3. PHANEROGAMS:

  • Gymnosperms: Concept of Progymonosperms. Classification and distribution of Gymnosperms.
  • Salient features of:
    • Cycadales, Coniferrals and Gnetales, their structures and reproduction.
    • A general account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales.
  • Angiosperms: Systematics, embryology, anatomy, palynology and phylogeny.
  • A comparative study of various systems of Angiosperm classification and angiospermic families–Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocar-paceae, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae (Composite), Poaceae (Gramineae), Arecaceae (Palmae), Liliaceae, Musaceae, Orchidaceae. Wood anatomy.
  • Taxonomic hierarchy with numerical, International code of botanical nomenclature.
  • Stomata and their types.
  • Glandular, and non-grandular trichomes.
  • Anomalous secondary growth, Anatomy of C 3 and C4 plants.
  • Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization. Endosperm–its development and function. Patterns of embryo development. Experimental embryology including pollen storage, and test-tube fertilization. Polyembryony, apomixis, Applications of palynology.

4. PLANT UTILITY AND EXPLOITATION:

  • Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov’s centres of origin.
  • Domestication and introduction of plants.
  • Plants as sources for food, fodder, beverages, spices, drugs, fibres, narcotics, insecticides, gums, timber, resins and dyes, latex, cellulose, starch and their products.
  • Perfumery. Importance of Ethnobotany w.r.t India.
  • Energy plantation. Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.

5. MORPHOGENESIS:

  • Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation.
  • Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids.
  • Micropropagation, Somaclonal variation with applications.
  • Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods with applications.

SYLLABUS FOR PAPER 2

UPSC Botany syllabus for 2020 - IAS Mains Optional Subjects
  1. CELL BIOLOGY:
  • Techniques of Cell Biology. Structural and ultrastructural details: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  • Structure and function of extracellular matrix or ECM (cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion, vesicular transport and, membrane transport.
  • Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes, hydrogenosome). Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex. Chromatin and nucleosome.
  • Cell signalling and cell receptors. Signal transduction (G-1 proteins, etc.). Mitosis and meiosis; molecular basis of the cell cycle. Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance. Study of polytene, lampbrush and B-chromosomes–structure, behaviour and significance.

2. GENETICS, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION:

  • Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles). Quantitative genetics and multiple factors.
  • Linkage and crossing over–methods of gene mapping including molecular maps (the idea of mapping function).
  • Quantitative genetics, and multiple factors, Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles.
  • Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation.
  • Mutation (biochemical and molecular basis). Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility). Prions and prion hypothesis.
  • Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Genetic code and the regulation of gene expression. Multigene families. Gene silencing.
  • Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.

3. PLANT BREEDING, BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOSTATISTICS:

  • Methods of plant breeding — introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method).
  • Mutation, polyploidy.
  • Male sterility and heterosis breeding.
  • Use of apomixis in plant breeding. Micropropagation, DNA sequencing, and genetic engineering–methods of transfer of genes and transgenic crops; development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding as well as biosafety aspects.
  • Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square tests). Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson distributions). Correlation and regression.
  • Tools and technique- probe, DNA fingerprinting, southern blotting, PCR and FISH.

4. PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY:

  • Water relations, Mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies.
  • Photosynthesis–photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon pathways including C pathway (photorespiration), C, C and CAM pathways.
  • Respiration (anaerobic and aerobic, including fermentation-electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism.
  • Enzymes, coenzymes, energy transfer and energy conservation. Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome). Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence.
  • Growth substances-their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture, growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal).
  • Fruit and seed physiology.
  • Dormancy, storage and germination of seed. Fruit ripening — its molecular basis and manipulation.

5. ECOLOGY AND PLANT GEOGRAPHY:

  • Ecological factors
  • Concepts and dynamics of a community.
  • Plant succession.
  • Concepts of the biosphere.
  • Ecosystems and their conservation. Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation).

6. Forest types of India:

  • Afforestation, deforestation and social forestry.
  • Endangered plants, endemism and Red Data Books.
  • Biodiversity. Convention of Biological Diversity, sovereign Rights and Intellectual Property Rights.
  • Biogeochemical cycles.
  • Global warming.
Author
It was my hobby to write which pushed me to be a content writer. It has been for 2 years that I am doing work as a content writer and many blogs. People loving my articles is something that gives me the courage to write more and more! Writing and reading are something that I am passionate about!
error: