For a UPSC CSE aspirant, the optional subject is also an important subject. In the UPSC mains exam, optional marks have two papers, Paper 1 and Paper 2. Each paper is of 250 marks which makes a total of 500 marks. The UPSC optional subject list contains 48 subjects in total, one of which is Management.





A. Managerial Function

  • Foundations and concept of Management
  • Evolution of Management Thoughts
  • Managerial Functions – Organizing, Planning, Controlling
  • Decision making
  • Management of innovation
  • Managerial skills
  • Role of Manager
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Managing in a global environment, Flexible Systems Management
  • Process and customer orientation
  • Social responsibility and managerial ethics
  • Managerial processes on the direct and indirect value chain

B. Organizational Behavior and Design

  • Conceptual model of organization behavior
  • The dynamics of organizational behaviour – power and politics, conflict and negotiation, leadership process and styles, communication
  • The individual processes – personality, values and attitude, perception, motivation, learning and reinforcement, work stress and stress management
  • The Organizational Processes – decision making and job design
  • Organizational theory and design – organizational culture, managing cultural diversity, learning organization
  • Classical, Neoclassical and Contingency approaches to organizational design
  • Organizational change and development
  • Networked and virtual organizations
  • Knowledge-Based Enterprise – systems and processes
UPSC IAS Mains 2020: Syllabus for Management Optional Papers

C. Human Resource Management

  • HR challenges 
  • Strategic Management of human resources
  • Human resource planning
  • HRM functions
  • The future challenges of HRM
  • Job analysis
  • Job evaluation
  • Training and development
  • Recruitment and selection
  • Promotion and transfer
  • Performance management
  • Compensation management and benefits
  • Employee morale and productivity
  • Management of organizational climate and Industrial relations
  • Human resource information system
  • Human resources accounting and audit
  • International human resource management

D. Accounting for Managers

  • Financial accounting  
    • Concept, scope, and importance
    • Generally accepted accounting principles
    • Preparation of financial statements with special reference to the analysis of a balance sheet and measurement of business income, inventory valuation, and depreciation
    • Fund flow analysis
    • Financial statement analysis
    • The statement of cash flows
  • Management accounting 
    • Concept, scope, need, and importance
    • Cost accounting – records and processes, cost ledger and control accounts, reconciliation and integration between financial and cost accounts
    • Overhead cost and control
    • Job and process costing
    • Budget and budgetary control
    • Performance budgeting
    • Zero-base budgeting
    • Relevant costing and costing for decision-making
    • Standard costing, and variance analysis
    • Marginal costing and absorption costing

E. Financial Management

  • Goals of the finance function
  • Concepts of value and return
  • Valuation of bonds and shares
  • Management of cash, receivables, inventory, and current liabilities
  • Management of working capital: Estimation and financing
  • Capital budgeting
  • Cost of capital
  • Financial and operating leverage
  • Design of capital structure: practices and theories
  • Shareholder value creation: dividend policy, corporate financial policy and strategy, management of corporate distress, and restructuring strategy
  • Capital and money markets: institutions and instruments
  • Leasing, hire purchase and venture capital
  • Regulation of capital market
  • Risk and return: portfolio theory
  • APT 
  • CAPM
  • Financial derivatives: option, futures, swap 
  • Recent reforms in the financial sector

F. Marketing Management

  • Concept, scope, and evolution
  • Segmenting and targeting the market
  • Marketing strategy formulation and components of the marketing plan
  • Positioning and differentiating the market offering
  • Analyzing consumer markets
  • Analyzing competition
  • Industrial buyer behavior
  • Market research
  • Pricing strategies
  • Product strategy
  • Designing and managing Marketing channels
  • Integrated marketing communications
  • Building customer satisfaction, Value, and retention
  • Services and non-profit marketing
  • Consumer protection
  • Ethics in marketing
  • Internet marketing
  • Retail management
  • Concept of holistic marketing
  • Customer relationship management


A.Quantitative Techniques in Decision Making

  • Descriptive statistics – tabular, graphical, and numerical methods
  • Introduction to probability, discrete and continuous probability distributions
  • Inferential statistics sampling distributions
  • Central limit theorem
  • Hypothesis testing for differences between means and proportions
  • Inference about population variances
  • Chi-square and ANOVA, simple correlation and regression, time series and forecasting
  • Decision theory
  • Index numbers
  • Linear programming – problem formulation, simplex method and graphical solution, sensitivity analysis
Download UPSC Mains Management Optional Syllabus PDF - UPSC Hub

B. Production and Operations Management

  • Fundamentals of operations management
  • Organizing for production
  • Aggregate production planning, capacity planning, plant design: process planning, plant size, and scale of operations, Management of facilities
  • Line balancing
  • Equipment replacement and maintenance
  • Production control
  • Supply chain management – vendor evaluation and audit
  • Quality management
  • Statistical process control
  • Six Sigma
  • Flexibility and agility in manufacturing systems
  • World-class manufacturing
  • Project management concepts, R&D management, Management of service operations
  • Role and importance of materials management, value analysis, make or buy decision; 
  • Inventory control
  • MRP 
  • Waste management

C. Management Information System

  • Conceptual foundations of information systems
  • Information theory
  • Types of information systems
  • Information resource management
  • Trends in information technology
  • Information systems planning
  • Systems development – Overview of systems and design
  • System development management life- cycle, distributed environments and designing for online
  • Implementation and control of the project
  • Managing data resources – Organising data
  • RDBMS and DSS
  • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Expert systems, e-Business architecture, e-Governance
  • Flexibility in information systems
  • Evaluation of information systems
  • User involvement

D. Government Business Interface

  • State participation in business, Interaction between Government, Business and different Chambers of Commerce and Industry in India
  • Government clearances for establishing a new enterprise
  • Government’s policy with regard to Small Scale Industries
  • Public Distribution System
  • Government control over price and distribution
  • Consumer Protection Act (CPA) and The Role of voluntary organizations in protecting consumers’ rights
  • New Industrial Policy of the Government: deregulation, liberalization, and privatization
  • Indian planning system
  • Government policy concerning the development of Backward areas/regions
  • Corporate Governance
  • The Responsibilities of the business as well as the Government to protect the environment
  • Cyber Laws

E. Strategic Management

  • Business policy as a field of study
  • Nature and scope of strategic management, Strategic intent, vision, objectives, and policies; Process of strategic planning and implementation
  • SWOT analysis
  • Environmental analysis and internal analysis
  • Tools and techniques for strategic analysis – Impact matrix: The experience curve, GEC mode, BCG matrix, Industry analysis, Concept of the value chain
  • Framework for analyzing competition
  • Strategic profile of a firm
  • The competitive advantage of a firm
  • Generic competitive strategies
  • Concept of core competence, Strategic flexibility
  • Growth strategies – expansion, integration, and diversification 
  • Reinventing strategy
  • Strategy and structure
  • Turnaround management 
  • Chief Executive and Board
  • Management of strategic change
  • Strategic alliances, Mergers, and Acquisitions
  • Strategy and corporate evolution in the Indian context

F. International Business

  • India’s Foreign Trade: Policy and trends
  • International Business Environment: Changing composition of trade in goods and services
  • Financing of International trade
  • Regional Economic Cooperation
  • Internationalization of service firms
  • International production
  • International Taxation
  • FTAs
  • Operation Management in International companies
  • Global competitiveness and technological developments
  • Global e-Business
  • Multicultural management
  • Designing global organizational structure and control
  • Global marketing strategies
  • Global business strategy
  • Export Management
  • Export- Import procedures
  • Joint Ventures
  • Cross-border mergers and Acquisitions
  • Foreign Exchange Risk Exposure Management
  • Foreign Investment: Foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment
  • World Financial Markets and International Banking
  • Country Risk Analysis
  • External Debt Management

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